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Working principle and structure of lithium-ion batteries

Jan 23, 2024

The lithium-ion battery is a rechargeable battery that uses lithium ions to move between the positive and negative electrodes for charge and discharge. It is one of the most advanced battery technologies today, with high energy density, high power density, low self-discharge, and no memory effect. And other advantages, widely used in various electronic equipment, power tools, electric vehicles and other fields.

The working principle of the lithium-ion battery: When charging the battery, the external power supply applies a positive voltage to the battery, causing lithium ions to escape from the positive electrode material, pass through the electrolyte solution and be embedded in The negative electrode material At the same time, electrons pass from the positive electrode through the external circuit to reach the negative electrode so that The negative electrode obtains a charge to realize The charging process of a battery. When discharging a battery, an external circuit applies a negative voltage to The battery causing lithium ions to escape from The negative electrode material and pass through The electrolyte solution and are embedded in The positive electrode material at The same time Electrons pass from The negative electrode through an external circuit Stretched out by reaching The positive electrode causes it To lose charge thus achieving Battery discharging process.

The structure of a lithium-ion battery: A lithium-ion battery is composed of a positive electrode , a negative electrode ,a separator ,an electrolyte ,a casing and other components .The positive electrode material is generally an oxide of metal containing lithium such as lithium cobalt oxide ,lithium manganate ,ternary materials etc .The negative electrode material generally has carbon materials such as graphite ,hard carbon ,soft carbon etc .The separator is made of microporous materials .Polymer film can prevent electrons flowing between two electrodes but allow Li+ ions passing through . Electrolyte is organic solutions which contains Lithium salts .It can provide transmission medium for Li+ ion .Housing is used to package batteries .Metal or plastic materials can protect the safety and stability of batteries.

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